NASA spacecraft beams back incredible images of Jupiter

This Aug. 27, 2016 infrared image provided by NASA shows the southern aurora of Jupiter, captured by NASA's Juno spacecraft.

This Aug. 27, 2016 infrared image provided by NASA shows the southern aurora of Jupiter, captured by NASA’s Juno spacecraft.(NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS via AP)

A NASA spacecraft has captured the best views of Jupiter yet, revealing turbulent storms in the north pole.

Jupiter’s northern polar region is stormier than expected and appears bluer than the rest of the planet, said mission chief scientist Scott Bolton of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio.

“This image is hardly recognizable as Jupiter,” he said in a statement.

NASA on Friday released a batch of close-up pictures taken by the Juno spacecraft last week when it flew within 2,500 miles of Jupiter’s dense cloud tops.

During the rendezvous that took Juno from pole to pole, the solar-powered spacecraft turned on its camera and instruments to collect data.

The first glimpse of Jupiter’s poles came in 1974 when Pioneer 11 flew by on its way to Saturn.

The detailed pictures taken by Juno look “like nothing we have seen or imagined before,” Bolton said.

Juno also sent back unique views of Jupiter’s bright southern lights considered the most powerful in the solar system.

The flyby was the first of three dozen planned close passes during the 20-month mission.

Unlike rocky Earth and Mars, Jupiter is a gas giant that likely formed first, shortly after the sun. Studying the largest planet in the solar system may hold clues to understanding how Earth and the rest of the planets formed.

After a five-year journey, Juno slipped into orbit around Jupiter in July to map the massive planet’s poles, atmosphere and interior. It’s the first spacecraft to carry a titanium vault designed to shield its computer and electronics from intense radiation.

Juno is only the second mission to orbit Jupiter. When it completes its job in 2018, it will deliberately crash into Jupiter’s atmosphere and disintegrate. NASA planned the finale so that Juno won’t accidentally smack into Jupiter’s moons, particularly the icy moon Europa, a target of future exploration.

Innovative Lego-like armor is replacing sandbags

McCurdy's Armor

McCurdy’s Armor(Dynamic Defense Materials)

Blast and bullet resistant, giant Lego-like blocks are making the old-fashioned sandbag a thing of the past.

For hundreds of years, sandbags have been the standard for rapidly building fortifications— but now there’s a smarter and superior solution. It’s calledMcCurdy’s Armor. You can use them to build walls, guard posts and more, or even build a shed in your backyard to withstand a zombie apocalypse.

Made by Dynamic Defense Materials, the product is named after Ryan McCurdy. McCurdy was a Marine who was killed by a sniper while trying to save another Marine.

Joe Dimon, general manager of Dynamic Defense Materials, explained that he served with McCurdy in Fallujah. “He is someone that I feel would still be alive today if we had this technology when we were serving in Iraq,” he said.

McCurdy’s Armor can withstand RPGs, Molotov Cocktails, small arms fire and even serious explosive blasts including 32 pounds of TNT – that’s about the equivalent of two 155 artillery shells.

There are transparent gun ports to provide soldiers with situational awareness while completely protected. When soldiers need to return fire, the ports can quickly open into firing position.

How does it work?

They can be set up on any terrain. Three people working together can set up an entire guard post without any hand tools or heavy equipment in less than ten minutes. The system can be dismantled and redeployed just as rapidly.

Also designed for easy storage and transport, McCurdy’s Armor can be packed away in a trailer to relocate and quickly be set up elsewhere.

Where would they be used?

These giant armored blocks have been quietly replacing sandbags as the far smarter and effective solution to rapid protection in war zones. Hundreds of these posts have been delivered to the U.S. Army in Afghanistan. Other users include the U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, Afghan Border Security and Mexican Federal Police.

Beyond the war zone, they could also be used to protect places that are attractive targets to terrorists like government buildings, airports, train stations, and hotels, to name a few.

Modern twist on gladiator shields

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Also made by Dynamic Defense Materials is an individual shield that allows protection on the go. It is designed to meet challenges like active shooters and checkpoints.  It can also be useful on roofs, and blend into structures like U.S. embassies.

The Mobile Ballistic Shields provide full protection against small arms, high caliber rifles and multiple hits. The mobility means they can be handy for law enforcement during riots, for example.

It also has robust wheels for rugged terrain. And like Legos, the shields can connect to others to build a moving wall of protection.

Allison Barrie consults at the highest levels of defense, has travelled to more than 70 countries, is a lawyer with four postgraduate degrees and now the author of the new book “Future Weapons: Access Granted”  covering invisible tanks through to thought-controlled fighter jets. You can click here for more information on FOX Firepower columnist and host Allison Barrie and you can follow her on Twitter @allison_barrie.

How LSD permits leaping word associations

brain istock

(iStock)

The drug LSD may make it easier for the brain to access distantly related words, a new study finds, suggesting that the drug activates certain language networks in the brain.

The researchers also found that people under the influence of LSD self-monitor their own language less than people who haven’t taken the drug, according to the study, published Aug. 18 in the journal Language, Cognition and Neuroscience.

The study didn’t address questions about the effect of the psychedelic drug on creativity or mental health, but could lead to new research in those areas, said lead researcher Neiloufar Family, a postdoctoral scientist at the University of Kaiserslautern in Germany.

“Our results do hint toward having access to further-away associations under the influence of psychedelics,” Family told Live Science.

The brain on LSD

In the study, Family and her colleagues asked 10 people to complete a rather dull picture-naming task while either under the influence of LSD or not. The participants came to the lab on two different days to do the experiment, and weren’t told which day they were getting the drug, although the psychedelic effects probably made clear if they had received it, the researchers wrote.

LSD, or lysergic acid diethylamide, is a compound that is similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin. It can thus act on cellular receptors that recognize serotonin, in particular one called 5-HT2AThe drug’s action on this receptor has a wide array of effects, including odd visual distortions and “ego dissolution,” or the sense that the boundaries between the self and the rest of the world have disappeared.

A growing area of research is investigating whether some of these psychedelic effects might have promise for treating people who have mental illnesses; in 2014, for example, researchers reported that taking LSD in a very controlled, supported environment improved people’s anxiety symptoms over time.

Family said she and her colleagues were interested in studying LSD’s effect on language processing in part because by altering the brain with the drug, they could learn about thought processes that are usually hidden. Language is largely automatic and unconscious, Family said, so people can’t explain how they pick words or why they might stumble now and then.

“You’re looking at an altered state of consciousness to get a better idea of how the brain works in its normal state,” she said of the LSD experiment.

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Language and LSD

The participants were shown 32 different pictures in three different categories — clothing, body parts and vehicles — and told to name the objects. Pictures were cycled through again and again, so participants had to name more than 700 in total. It’s a long, boring and repetitive task, Family said, and that’s no accident: The researchers wanted the participants to get a little bored, so the experiment could test whether any errors the individuals made resulted from the drug or just a wandering mind.

In general, the types of errors people make when they speak can illuminate their brain functions. For example, if someone stutters over the beginning of words, it suggests they’re paying too much attention to their word production. If they’re making mistakes with sound, it might show something about how the brain represents different sounds.

In the new study, the researchers found two differences in the types of errors produced by the participants when they were on LSD versus when they were sober. One was that the participants made more errors when on LSD than when sober, but not just any errors. They made their mistakes fully, without catching themselves. Instead of seeing a picture of a car and saying, “Trrr — car,” for example, they’d say the complete word “Truck” before realizing they were wrong.

LSD also made people more likely to mix up similar concepts.

“They would say ‘foot’ for ‘hand’ or ‘sock’ for ‘shoe,'” Family said. This result suggests that LSD was increasing the activation of what linguists call semantic networks. That means that related words were closer to the surface of a person’s consciousness, and were competing to be expressed.

The study is the first since the 1960s to look at LSD’s effect on language (though a 1996 study looked at language processing under the influence of the similar psychedelic drug, psilocybin, or magic mushrooms). The new research suggests that LSD might make linguistic free-association flow more smoothly, Family said, but the study was small and more work needs to be done. She said she hopes to conduct further studies on language and LSD using psilocybin to elucidate what’s going on in the brain while people are under the drug’s influence.

LSD research got a bad rap in the 1960s when the CIA funded secret research investigating the drug’s use for mind control. Today, doing research with the drug requires cutting through a lot of red tape, and the subject is still taboo enough that funding is hard to come by, Family said. Nevertheless, scientific interest in psychedelics and the brain is growing, she said.

“Because societal attitudes are slowly moving away from the hysteria that surrounds these substances, research has been gaining momentum,” Family said.

Original article on Live Science.

Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

New pterosaur species with intact skull uncovered in Patagonia

An artist's reconstruction of a new species of pterosaur, Allkaruen koi.

An artist’s reconstruction of a new species of pterosaur, Allkaruen koi.(Gabriel Lío)

A new species of pterosaur named for its “ancient brain” has been found in Patagonia.

The flying reptile lived in the early Jurassic period, between about 199.6 million years ago and 175.6 million years ago. Paleontologists found the new fossil in north central Chubut province in Argentina. To their delight, the fossil included an intact braincase, offering them a new look at pterosaur neuroanatomy.

The researchers named the new species Allkaruen koi. All means “brain,” andkaruen means “ancient,” in Tehuelche, a language indigenous to Patagonia. [Photos of Pterosaurs: Flight in the Age of Dinosaurs]

“Allkaruen, from the middle lower Jurassic limit, shows an intermediate state in the brain evolution of pterosaurs and their adaptations to the aerial environment,” study researcher Diego Pol, a paleontologist at the Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio in Argentina, said in a statement. “As a result, this research makes an important contribution to the understanding of the evolution of all of pterosaurs.”

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The new pterosaur was found in a bone bed that contains many pterosaur remains. Archaeologists uncovered a vertebra, jaws and a braincase. The braincase was only a few dozen millimeters long, indicating that it was from a small pterosaur species, the researchers said.

It’s rare to find an intact pterosaur braincase, according to the researchers, and little has been known about the way pterosaur skulls (and thus brains) evolved over time. The researchers used computed-tomography scans to build digital models of the reptile’s inner ear and the interior of its skull.

This technique, in turn, let the scientists put Allkaruen in its place in the pterosaur family tree. For instance, the researchers learned that some skull features associated with Pterodactylus — one genus of pterosaurs — had evolved by the early to middle Jurassic, even though pterodactyls themselves had not yet evolved.The research appeared Tuesday in the open-access journal PeerJ.

Pterosaurs had a suite of adaptations that made them strong fliers. Their bones were feather-light, and they sported air sacs extending from their lungs to keep their body density down and their air exchange efficient, a 2009 study found. While some pterosaur species were tiny, others grew to be the size of giraffes. These behemoths may have used their limbs to leapfrog into flight, paleontologists say.

In 2015, researchers reported the discovery of a 200-million-year-old pterosaur in Utah that had a wingspan measuring 4.5 feet long, and 110 teeth, including four that were 1 inch long.

Original article on Live Science. Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

A newfound asteroid just buzzed harmlessly by Earth

Orbit diagram for the newfound asteroid 2016 QA2, which flew by Earth on Aug. 28, 2016.

Orbit diagram for the newfound asteroid 2016 QA2, which flew by Earth on Aug. 28, 2016.(NASA/JPL-Caltech)

An asteroid gave Earth a close shave Sunday, Aug. 28, just a day after astronomers first spotted the object.

The newfound asteroid 2016 QA2 zoomed within 50,000 miles or so of the planet Sunday. For perspective, the moon orbits Earth at an average distance of 239,000 miles.

Astronomers think 2016 QA2 is between 80 and 180 feet wide. That means the space rock is slightly bigger than the object that exploded over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk in February 2013, injuring more than 1,200 people.

The Chelyabinsk asteroid was probably 65 feet or so in diameter when it hit Earth’s atmosphere, scientists have said. (The Chelyabinsk object exploded high above the ground, generating a powerful shock wave that shattered thousands of windows. The injuries — none of which were fatal — were cuts caused by flying glass.)

The SONEAR Observatory in Brazil discovered 2016 QA2 on Saturday, Aug. 27. The asteroid has a more elliptical orbit than Earth does, coming as close to the sun as 0.76 astronomical units (AU) and getting as far away as 1.18 AU, according to the Minor Planet Center. (One AU is the average distance form Earth to the sun: about 93 million miles).

The newfound asteroid completes one lap around the sun every 350 days, researchers said.

Asteroids in 2016 QA2’s size range could conceivably do serious damage on a local scale if they hit Earth. In 1908, for example, an object thought to be about 130 feet wide exploded over Siberia, flattening trees over an 825-square-mile area. (It may seem like asteroids really have it in for Russia, but the nation’s higher incidence of strikes is just a result of its huge size.)

But an asteroid has to be really big — probably at least 0.6 miles wide — to potentially wipe out human civilization or cause some other global catastrophe, astronomers have said. Scientists think they’ve spotted about 95 percent of the potentially hazardous, mountain-size space rocks out there, and none of those objects pose a threat for the foreseeable future.

Originally published on Space.com.

Robot patrol: Israeli Army to deploy autonomous vehicles on Gaza border

The Border Protector UGV (Israel Defense Forces).

The Border Protector UGV (Israel Defense Forces).

Israel is planning to bolster its high-tech arsenal by deploying fully autonomous military vehicles along the country’s dangerous border with Gaza.

“This is the future — the border is a very dangerous place,” an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) official told FoxNews.com, citing the threat of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), snipers, anti-tank missiles and terrorist tunnels. “Sending unmanned vehicles to do these patrols means that troops lives’ are not at risk.”

Working with Israeli defense specialist Elbit Systems, IDF has equipped Ford F-350 pickup trucks with specialized remote driving technology. The trucks, dubbed Border Protector Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs), are also fitted with four driving cameras and a 360-degree observation camera to help operators identify threats. At the moment, the vehicles are unarmed.

UGV testing began in July 2015 and the trucks became operational in February.

Currently, each vehicle is driven by an operator in a remote control room using a steering wheel, joystick and pedals. In the next few months, the Israeli Army aims to deploy the UGVs semi-autonomously, with the vehicle driving toward a map coordinate set by its operator. The trucks, however, will still need their operators to guide them around any obstacles in their path.

Longer-term, the trucks will need less human intervention. “In the future, we will have the capability of fully autonomous driving,” the IDF official added, noting that the UGVs will autonomously navigate any obstacles in their path.

Troops can also drive the UGVs traditionally from the driver’s seat.

IDF declined to reveal how many UGVs are in operation or the exact timeframe for autonomous operation.

Plans are also in place to add a weapon to the vehicle. “We think at the beginning of next year, we will get a machine gun on the vehicle that will be operated from a control room – the machine gun will not be autonomous,” said the IDF official.

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The UGV replaces the semi-autonomous Guardium vehicle that was deployed by Israeli forces in 2009. “The Guardium was unable to navigate obstacles by itself, but the UGV will be able to,” explained the official.

The Israeli Army wants to eventually deploy the UGVs on Israel’s other borders with Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

Israel is not the only country looking to harness autonomous military vehicles. The U.S. Army, for example, recently tested driverless vehicle technology in Michigan. The Army’s Tank Automotive Research and Development Center (TARDEC) alsoshowcased one of its autonomous vehicles at the Detroit Auto Show earlier this year.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

One of our largest water sources contains toxic salt, too much arsenic

A woman collects water from a tube-well in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in April.

A woman collects water from a tube-well in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in April.(AP Photo/A.M. Ahad)

A river basin in southern Asia is so enormous that 750 million people rely on it for their groundwater. Now, a new study in Nature Geoscience presents an equally staggering stat: 60% of that water is unfit for drinking or farming because it’s contaminated by salt or arsenic, reports the Guardian.

About 23% of the groundwater in the Indo-Gangetic Basin to a depth of 650 feet is too salty—an issue perhaps caused by poor farmland irrigation or drainage—and another 37% is tainted by toxic levels of arsenic, researchers say.

Like salt, arsenic is present naturally, but levels can spike with mining and the use of fertilizers. The basin, so named because it’s near the Indus and Ganges rivers, serves people in Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, and it accounts for one-quarter of the world’s groundwater.

“Elevated arsenic is primarily a concern for drinking water, while salinity affects irrigation and also the acceptability of groundwater for drinking,” the researchers say, per International Business Times.

However, researchers say that “deep tube wells” could penetrate deeper into the basin to pull out non-contaminated water, per Nature World News. Perhaps the only good news from the report is that the amount of water in the basin remained relatively stable, in contrast to other groundwater sources around the world.

(Testing has found issues with 2,000 US water systems.)

This article originally appeared on Newser: One of Our Largest Water Sources Is Contaminated

SETI team investigating mysterious signal from star 94 light-years away

By Mike Wall, Space.com Senior Writer Published August 31, 2016
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Significant extraterrestrial signal detected from space
A powerful signal has been spotted coming from the vicinity of a sunlike star, and now astronomers are trying to figure out what it means.

In May 2015, researchers using a radio telescope in Russia detected a candidate SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) signal that seems to originate from HD 164595, a star system that lies about 94 light-years from Earth, the website Centauri Dreams reported over the weekend.

The astronomers have not yet published a study about the detection; they plan to discuss it next month at the 67th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) in Guadalajara, Mexico, according to Centauri Dreams’ Paul Gilster, who wrote that one of the team members forwarded him the IAC presentation. [13 Ways to Hunt Intelligent Alien Life]

HD 164595 is known to harbor one planet — a roughly Neptune-mass world that orbits too close to the star to support life as we know it. However, it’s possible that other worlds lurk undiscovered in the system, said astronomer Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, who is not part of the detection team.

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The scientists who made the detection are respected researchers, and the signal is strong enough that it’s probably not just random noise, Shostak told Space.com. Furthermore, the signal is consistent with something an alien civilization might send out — and if aliens did indeed do it, they are certainly far more advanced than we are, he added.

Based on the received signal’s characteristics, aliens would have to generate about 100 billion billion watts of energy to blast it out in all directions. And they’d still have to produce more than 1 trillion watts if they beamed it only to Earth for some reason, Shostak said.

“The first number is hundreds of times more than all the sunlight falling on Earth,” he said. “That’s a very big energy bill.”

The SETI Institute focused the Allen Telescope Array (ATA), a system of radio dishes in Northern California, at HD 164595 Sunday night (Aug. 28) and plans to do so again tonight (Aug. 29), Shostak said. He certainly hopes the ATA finds something that would suggest ET is behind the signal, but he said he suspects there’s a more prosaic explanation.

For example, it’s possible that interference by an Earth-orbiting satellite or something else close to home is responsible, Shostak said. Indeed, he said that such “terrestrial interference” would be his bet, if we ever do learn what caused the signal.

But, sadly, it’s very possible that we’ll never know. The Russia-based team apparently observed the HD 164595 system 39 different times and only detected the signal once, Shostak said. If nobody sees it again, it will probably remain a mystery, much like the famous “Wow!” signal of 1977.

“Without a confirmation of this signal, we can only say that it’s ‘interesting,'” Shostak wrote today in a blog post about the candidate signal detection.

Goddess name inscribed in lost language on ancient tablet

By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor Published August 30, 2016
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A close-up of a stele found at Poggio Colla, a site of religious ritual for the ancient Etruscans.
A close-up of a stele found at Poggio Colla, a site of religious ritual for the ancient Etruscans. (Mugello Valley Project)
An ancient tablet recently unearthed in Tuscany has revealed its first secret: the engraved name of a goddess linked to fertility.

The 500-pound stone slab, or stele, was unearthed earlier this year at Poggio Colla, a sixth century B.C. site built by the Etruscans. The stele bears a long inscription in a language that has not been used for 2,500 years, project archaeologist Gregory Warden, a professor emeritus at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, told Live Science in April.

Now, translation is underway and archaeologists have discovered that the tablet references the goddess Uni. [Photos: The Tomb of an Etruscan Prince]

“We can at this point affirm that this discovery is one of the most important Etruscan discoveries of the last few decades,” Warden said in a statement. “It’s a discovery that will provide not only valuable information about the nature of sacred practices at Poggio Colla, but also fundamental data for understanding the concepts and rituals of the Etruscans, as well as their writing and perhaps their language.”

Mother goddess?
Uni was an important goddess linked to fertility. Previously, the most famous find at Poggio Colla was a piece of ceramic depicting a woman squatting to give birth, perhaps suggesting that a fertility cult worshiped at the site, according to Warden.

The Etruscans were a heavily religious society that started around 700 B.C. in modern-day northern and eastern Italy. They flourished until they were absorbed by Rome, a gradual process that took place between 500 B.C. and 100 B.C.

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There are at least 120 characters on the Poggio Colla stele, making it the longest Etruscan inscription ever found on stone and among the longest three sacred texts ever discovered, researchers will report in a yet-unpublished article in the journal Etruscan Studies. The inscription might express the laws of the sanctuary, Warden said, perhaps outlining the ceremonies that took place there. Archaeologists have deciphered another word on the tablet, “Tina,” which refers to the head god of the Etruscan Pantheon (much like Zeus for the Greeks).

Striking find
Archaeologists have been digging at Poggio Colla for 21 years, and found the slab at the very end of the most recent field season at the site. It’s about 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide and made of sandstone. Because the stone is scuffed and chipped, researchers are painstakingly cleaning it in order to translate the words. Etruscans left behind few texts because they mostly wrote on linen or erasable wax tablets. Understanding Etruscan religious belief and ritual is important because as the civilization was engulfed by Rome, it influenced Roman culture and belief.

Most previously discovered texts are short inscriptions on graves, according to Warden. One linen book written in the Etruscan language was found on an Egyptian mummy — recycled as wrappings. Otherwise, researchers know little about Etruscan religious rituals, other than that they were polytheistic.

Though the stele is still being cleaned and studied, a hologram projection of it will be displayed in Florence on Aug. 27 as researchers announce the translations they’ve made so far.

Original article on Live Science. Copyright 2016 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Inside FDR’s wartime mission to protect American treasures

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Published August 28, 2016 New York Post
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Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill sit on portico of Russian Embassy in Tehran, during conference in 1943. (Library of Congress)
Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill sit on portico of Russian Embassy in Tehran, during conference in 1943. (Library of Congress)
Early in the evening of Dec. 26, 1941, a train bound for Fort Knox pulled out of Union Station in Washington, DC. Four Secret Service agents stood guard over an assortment of discreet-looking packages stashed in Car A-1. Only a handful of government officials knew what they contained.

Inside the parcels were the original Declaration of Independence, the original Constitution of the United States and the first and second drafts of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.

The very spirit of America was on that train, being secreted away from an enemy determined to stamp out life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

“American Treasures” (St. Martin’s Press), a book by Stephen Puleo out Tuesday, tells the stories of the US government officials who protected our nation’s heritage following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

One of its heroes is Franklin D. Roosevelt, who understood “the symbolic value of those documents and who realized, particularly after Pearl Harbor, the psychic disaster it would be if they were destroyed,” Puleo tells The Post.

Roosevelt’s fears were warranted. There was, Puleo explains, a palpable sense that the Germans could attack Washington, DC.

“There were U-boats off the East Coast of America, sinking ships near Cape May and Cape Cod,” he says. “People thought there would be bombers overhead. So the decision to remove the documents was not a frivolous or whimsical thought.”

Government officials were also acutely aware of the destruction, well underway by 1941, of England’s heritage: The Germans had dropped a bomb on the British Museum, obliterating more than 1,000 books collected by King George III.

Roosevelt put his friend Archibald MacLeish, the head of the Library of Congress, in charge of cataloging and safeguarding America’s historical papers. Well before the bombs fell on Pearl Harbor, MacLeish and some 700 Library of Congress staffers worked overtime and without pay to catalog thousands of documents, ranking them in order of historical importance.

Some 5,000 manuscripts were removed from Washington, DC, during the war. Among them were an original Gutenberg Bible, James Madison’s handwritten notes on the Constitutional Convention, the Articles of Confederation, George Washington’s personal papers, the Lincoln Cathedral copy of the Magna Carta, and Walt Whitman’s notebooks.

Click to read the full story in the New York Post.