3D-printed bacteria may unlock disease secrets

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    3D printing allows scientists to build their own bacterial colonies in any number of shapes, from pyramids to donuts to spheroids.(IMAGE COURTESY JASON B. SHEAR AND PNAS)

Bacteria are often social creatures. Suspended in colonies of varying shapes and sizes, these microbes communicate with their brethren and even other bacterial species interactions that can sometimes make them more deadly or more resistant to antibiotics.

Now, bacterial colonies sculpted into custom shapes by a 3D printer could be a key to understanding how some antibiotic-resistant infections develop. The new technique uses methods similar to those employed by commercial 3D printers, which extrude plastic, to create gelatin-based bacterial breeding grounds. These microbial condos can be carved into almost any three-dimensional shape, including pyramids and nested spheres.

This 3D-printing technique could be used to investigate questions like “how many bacteria have to be clustered together, and in what size and what shape, in order for that microcolony to start acting differently than the cells do on their own,” said study researcher Jason Shear, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Texas at Austin. [7 Cool Uses of 3D Printing in Medicine]

Deadly clusters

Bacterial clustering is important precisely because bacteria bunched together often act differently than a single cell on its own. In some cases, bacteria even cement themselves together and onto surfaces with a gluelike substance, creating biofilms that are stubbornly resistant to antibiotics or the immune system. The plaque dentists scrape off your teeth is a biofilm that can contain dozens of interacting bacterial types, Shear told LiveScience.

More deadly are the biofilms that gather in the lungs of patients with the respiratory disease cystic fibrosis. Antibiotics can halt scattered bacteria that cause lung infections in these patients, but persistent biofilms on the lung tissue lurk, waiting to spit out new bacterial vagabonds. The result, Shear said, is a cycle of infection and treatment that is often fatal for the patient. On average, people with cystic fibrosis live to just their mid-30s, according to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

Understanding biofilms and other bacterial communities is crucial for learning how to breach bacterial defenses, but “really, technologies just haven’t been there,” Shear said.

Printing bacteria

3D printing may provide a way toward understanding. First, Shear and his colleagues add bacterial cells to a gelatin mixture, which they then cool to solidify, sort of like how Jell-O is made. The bacterial cells are like the fruit in this Jell-O cocktail.

Using a laser, the researchers then carve out capsules around the suspended bacteria. The laser light causes the molecules in the gelatin to link permanently. When the resulting capsules are warmed, most of the gelatin melts away but the laser-zapped areas stay put, creating hideouts where the bacteria can breed.

To prove that the method works, Shear and his colleagues created spheres of Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium that can cause food poisoning and skin infections. They surrounded the Staphbacteria with a shell of another common bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosaPseudomonas is a pathogen often found lurking in medical equipment.

The researchers then exposed these bacterial spheres to the antibiotic ampicillin. They found that 80 percent of the Staph survived the antibiotic when surrounded by Pseudomonas. In comparison, only 40 percent of the Staph withstood ampicillin when surrounded by an empty shell. The protection is apparently caused by Pseudomonas’ability to produce compounds that resist the bacteria.

Unlike the genetic drug resistance acquired by bacteria when antibiotics are overprescribed, this communal resistance depends on the colony structure. If the protective wall of Pseudomonas were to disappear, the Staph would again be vulnerable to the antibiotics.

The equipment used to custom-create bacterial colony shapes is pricey, Shear said, but the researchers are working on alternatives, including a cheaper laser.

“As with commercial 3D printing, I think there is a strong likelihood that the cost of the equipment could come down dramatically,” he said.

The researchers report their work this week in the journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

New fertility treatment can induce egg growth in infertile women

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For women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), getting pregnant can feel like nothing more than a dream.  Characterized by entering menopause early before the age of 40, this kind of infertility has no current treatment options, and women cannot have a baby that shares their genetic information.

But now, there may be an answer for these women who want to have a child of their own.  Researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine have developed a brand new technique called in vitro activation, which involves inducing the ovaries to produce eggs.

The scientists tested their treatment on 27 women in Japan with POI and were able to collect viable eggs from five of them.  After going through the treatment, one woman gave birth to a healthy baby boy, and another is currently pregnant.

“Right now the main options people have for this diagnosis is to either do egg donation and fertilize with the intended father’s sperm, or they may adopt the child,” Dr. Valerie Baker, associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Stanford, told FoxNews.com. “Various fertility medications really don’t work well for this condition at all, which is why this is such a ray of hope.”

Awakening sleeping follicles

The key to developing their technique came when researchers discovered a signaling pathway responsible for controlling the growth of follicles in ovaries.

“The human ovary is a very interesting organ in that you have 800,000 follicles at birth,” senior author Dr. Aaron Hsueh, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Stanford, told FoxNews.com. “…The follicles sit there, and they don’t grow, but then about 1,000 of this 800,000 begin to grow every month.”

Of those 1,000 follicles, only one matures into an egg that is released during ovulation each month.  During the course of her lifetime, a woman will ovulate only around 400 mature eggs.

It had previously not been known why one particular follicle became an egg and the others did not, but in 2010, Hsueh discovered that several proteins, including one called PTEN, regulate this growth process.  He showed that PTEN acts as a brake in the ovaries, keeping the small follicles from maturing fully.

“This is a system that’s found in a lot of organs in the body, and originally found in the fly,” Hsueh said.  “It is a very used signaling pathway that makes sure your heart or liver do not overgrow when they reach the right size.”

Hsueh found that by blocking this PTEN “brake” system, he could stimulate dormant follicles in the ovaries to grow and produce mature eggs.  He explained that although women with POI no longer have menstrual cycles, some of them still have unused small follicles in their ovaries.

In vitro activation

Utilizing this science, Hsueh and his colleague Yuan Cheng, a postdoctoral scholar in Hsueh’s lab, came up with a complex method called in vitro activation, which ultimately led to the successful birth in their study cohort.

First they removed the ovaries from their 27 participants, which were then cut into pieces – a process known as fragmenting.  Previous research has shown that mechanically disrupting the ovary through cutting or drilling small holes in it can help stimulate follicular development.

Once the ovaries were cut into small pieces, the scientists treated them with drugs to block the PTEN pathway, in order to further stimulate the smaller follicles to grow.  The ovary pieces were then transplanted through small incisions near the fallopian tubes of the women from which they were removed.

Of the 27 participants, five women went on to develop mature eggs – much more quickly than originally expected.

“This is where the interesting thing comes in,” Hsueh said. “This small sleeping follicle usually takes six months to grow” – based on pervious tests using mouse models.  “However, in his original study (Cheng) found that within three weeks, several of his patients had mature follicles and mature eggs.”

The mature eggs were then collected and fertilized with the intended husband’s sperm through in vitro fertilization.  The resulting embryos were then frozen and transferred back into the uterus.

Of these five women, one received her embryo but failed to become pregnant, one received the embryo and is currently pregnant, and one became pregnant, ultimately giving birth to a seemingly healthy baby boy.  The other two women are still preparing for their embryo transfer and undergoing further rounds of egg collection.

Providing hope

Hsueh and his team hope that in vitro activation will aid an entire group of women who previously thought they could never have a child of their own.  They noted that their technique can also be used to help women who have beaten cancer.

“A lot of people survive cancer, but because their chemotherapy damages the ovaries, they have fewer follicles,” Hsueh said.  “They’ll reach early menopause, but some of them still have smaller follicles and those baby follicles will be helped to wake up by this procedure.”

However, as shown in their study, only a fraction of women who reach early menopause will go on to successfully grow mature eggs.

“If they don’t have follicles left, there’s nothing you can do,” Hsueh said.  “So 25 to 30 percent of this type of patient can eventually have a baby.”

But according to Baker, who is working with Hsueh to continue investigating the treatment in Japan and at Stanford, these small odds are enough for these women.

“It’s so devastating for the women who have this,” Baker said. “For most people, the most important element in life is to have a family or have a child.  It can be devastating to a woman and her partner, not having a child genetically related…  So I’m incredibly excited.  It’s the first thing I’ve seen that looks like it could be hopeful.”

The research was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

To learn more about in vitro activation, visit IVAFertility.com.

Antibodies in shark blood may help prevent breast cancer growth

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A type of antibody found only in the blood of sharks could help tackle breast cancer, scientists have said.

It is thought that the unique IgNAR antibodies could be used to prevent the growth of cancer cells and research into them could lead to the development of new drugs to fight one of the most common form of the disease.

Biologists from the University of Aberdeen have been awarded $345,660 by Scottish cancer research charity the Association for International Cancer Research (AICR) to carry out a three-year study.

Their work will focus on two molecules, HER2 and HER3, found on the surface of cancer cells which, when they pair-up, are responsible for signalling cancer cells to grow and divide.

Potentially, IgNAR antibodies could be used to stop these molecules from working and sending the signal.

“IgNAR antibodies are interesting because they bind to targets, such as viruses or parasites, in a very different way to the antibodies found in humans,” said Dr Helen Dooley who is from the university’s School of Biological Sciences and will lead the study.

“They can do this because their attachment region is very small and so can fit into spaces that human antibodies cannot.

“We believe we can exploit the novel binding of IgNAR and use it to stop HER2 and HER3 molecules from working, and prompting cancer cells to grow and divide.”

Click for more from news.com.au.

Man with completely blue skin dies at 62


Paul Karason, a man made famous after his skin turned permanently blue 15 years ago, has passed away at 62 after suffering a heart attack, according to The Christian Post.

Karason’s skin turned blue after he used colloidal silver, a liquid made by extracting silver from metal, to treat his dermatitis – a condition that causes swollen, red and itchy skin. Karason reportedly drank the silver-based remedy and rubbed it on his skin.

“The change was so gradual that I didn’t perceive it and other people around me likewise,” said Karason in an earlier interview. “It wasn’t until a friend I hadn’t seen in several months came by my parent’s place to see me and he asked me, ‘What did you do?’”

After turning blue, Karason led a reclusive life until appearing on the Today show in 2008.

Karason suffered from heart problems and underwent a triple bypass five years ago, according to the Christian Post. He had also recently suffered a bout of severe pneumonia and a stroke.

The use of colloidal silver in oral drugs has since been banned by the FDA, according to the National Institute of Health.

Click for more from The Christian Post.

Doctors grow nose on man’s forehead

New York Post
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    A new nose, grown by surgeons on Xiaolian’s forehead, is pictured before being transplanted to replace the original nose, which is infected and deformed, at a hospital in Fuzhou, Fujian province. (REUTERS/STRINGER)

Surgeons at a hospital will transplant a new nose grown on a patient’s forehead to his nasal spot in Fuzhou City, east China’s Fujian Province.

The patient, nicknamed “Xiaolian,” 22, suffered a severe nasal trauma in a serious car accident in August 2012.

He just received basic medical remedy rather than a plastic surgery out of financial concerns following the accident.

After months, however, his condition was infected due to absence of surgery and his nasal cartilage started to be corroded, making it impossible for surgeons to do nasal reconstruction.

However, surgeons came up with an idea of growing a nose on Xiaolian’s forehead — a medical practice never tried in the world.

The way is to grow the nose by placing a skin tissue expander onto Xiaolian’s forehead, cutting it into the shape of a nose and planting a cartilage taken from his ribs.

Click for more the New York Post.

Blame the brain: Why psychopaths lack empathy

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Psychopaths are usually described as lacking empathy, and a new study reveals the neurological basis for this dearth of feeling.

When people with psychopathy imagine others experiencing pain, brain regions associated with empathy and concern for others fail to activate or connect with brain areas involved in emotional processing and decision-making, researchers report.

In addition to a lack of remorse, psychopathy is characterized by shallow affect, glibness, manipulation and callousness. The rate of psychopathy is about 23 percent in prisons, compared with about 1 percent in the general population, research shows. [The 9 Most Bizarre Medical Conditions]



Top 10 Mysteries of the Mind

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5 Ways to Foster Self-Compassion in Your Child


To investigate the neurological roots of the disorder, researchers studied 121 inmates at a medium-security prison in the United States. The inmates were divided into highly psychopathic, moderately psychopathic and weakly psychopathic groups on the basis of a widely used diagnostic tool called the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised.

Researchers scanned the brains of the participants while showing them images depicting physical pain, such as a finger getting caught in a door or a toe caught under a heavy object. The participants were told to imagine the accident happening to themselves or to someone else. They were also shown images of neutral ojects, such as a hand on a doorknob.

When the highly psychopathic individuals imagined the accidents happening to themselves, their brains lit up in the anterior insula, the anterior midcingulate cortex, the somatosensory cortex and the right amygdala — all areas involved in empathy. The response was quite pronounced, suggesting psychopathic individuals were sensitive to thoughts of pain.

But when the highly psychopathic inmates imagined the accident happening to others, their brains failed to light up in the regions associated with empathy. In fact, an area involved in pleasure, the ventral striatum, lit up instead. Furthermore, these individuals showed abnormal connectivity between the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for empathetic decision-making.

By contrast, the less psychopathic individuals showed more normal brain activation and connectivity in these areas.

The strange patterns of brain activation and connectivity in highly psychopathic individuals suggest they did not experience empathy when imagining the pain of others, and possibly took pleasure in it.

The findings could help inform intervention programs for psychopathy, the researchers say. Having psychopathic people imagine themselves in pain first could be used in cognitive behavior therapies as a way of kick-starting empathy, they wrote in the study detailed today (Sept. 24) in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

In fact, past research has shown psychopaths can feel empathy, when explicitly asked to, suggesting this ability to understand another person’s feelings may be repressed rather than missing entirely in psychopathic individuals.

Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Statin use tied to cataract development

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The risk of developing cloudy lenses in the eyes may be linked to the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, according to a new study.

While the researchers can’t prove the drugs caused the eye condition, they found that people who took statins – such as Zocor and Lipitor – were about 27 percent more likely to develop cataracts, compared to people who didn’t take the medication.

“The results were consistent that there was a higher risk of being diagnosed with cataracts among statin users,” Dr. Ishak Mansi, the study’s senior author from UT Southwestern Medical Center and the Dallas VA Medical Center in Texas, said.

Statins are popular drugs that block a substance the body needs to make cholesterol, which can get trapped in arteries and ultimately lead to heart attacks and strokes.

About one-quarter of U.S. adults aged 45 and older take statins. The drugs are especially recommended for people with diabetes or a history of cardiovascular problems.

Researchers have looked at the link between statins and cataracts before with mixed results. While some studies found that taking statins lowered the risk of developing cataracts, other studies found the drugs increased the risk.

For the new research, Mansi and his colleagues used data collected from the medical records of people between the ages of 30 and 85 years old who were enrolled in one healthcare system in San Antonio, Texas, and received care between 2003 and 2005.

In one analysis, they compared about 7,000 people who were on statins for at least 90 days to about 7,000 people who were not on statins but were similar in about 40 other characteristics, including other health conditions, medications and healthcare use.

About 36 percent of statin users were diagnosed with cataracts, compared to about 34 percent of people not taking statins.

In a second analysis, the researchers looked at people with no other known health conditions. It included 6,113 statin users and 27,400 people who did not take statins.

After adjusting the results for the participants’ age, sex, weight, medications, healthcare use, other vision conditions and cigarette, alcohol and drug use, the researchers found about 34 percent of statin users were diagnosed with cataracts, compared to about 10 percent of people not taking statins.

What’s more, the researchers found that the risk of developing cataracts increased with the length of time a person took the medication.

While Mansi and his colleagues can’t say how statins may affect the formation of cataracts, they write in JAMA Ophthalmology that there are a few possible explanations.

One is that the body needs high levels of cholesterol to maintain a clear lens and statins may interfere with the cells that control that process.

Dr. Jack Cioffi, head of ophthalmology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, said the study is very well done, but has some limitations, including that the researchers used billing data rather than medical records, so they can’t say how severe the cataracts were.

“I don’t think we should overstate the significance of this. It goes back to if there is a good reason for you to be on that statin, it outweighs the risk of a mild increase in risk of cataract,” Cioffi, who was not involved in the new study, said.

He added that the treatments for cataracts have evolved over time. The National Institutes of Health says the procedures to remove cataracts are some of the most common and safest surgeries performed in the U.S.

“For patients themselves, my advice is to discuss what your benefit and risk ratio is for you with your doctor,” said Mansi, who added that he hopes the results will also encourage people to improve their cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes.

“This should motivate patients to do their part. Quit smoking, eat healthy and be active so doctors don’t have to give you a tablet that may have some side effects,” he said.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/09/20/statin-use-tied-to-cataract-development/?intcmp=obnetwork#ixzz2fb4KQWLh

Google announces Calico, a new company targeting healthcare and illness

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    A Google doodle transforms the familiar logo into a science lab replete with beakers, vials … and a steaming coffee pot. (Google)

First they dominated the desktop. Now they’re after the afterlife.

Google on Wednesday announced Calico, an ambitious new company that aims to solve some of the biggest problems facing humanity today: illness, aging, diseases and ultimately death.

If it were anyone but Google, the sheer audacity of the goal would be laughable. But coming from the company that redefined the Internet, funds projects to land on and mine the moon, and invented a self-driving car, it’s at least worth listening to.


‘[We invest in] things that are a little more long-term and a little more ambitious than people normally would. More like moon shots.’

– Google CEO Larry Page


“I’m not proposing that we spend all of our money on those kinds of speculative things,” Google CEO Larry Page told Time. “But we should be spending a commensurate amount with what normal types of companies spend on research and development, and spend it on things that are a little more long-term and a little more ambitious than people normally would. More like moon shots.”

Like Google, Calico will be no ordinary company. The company — the name is short for the “California Life Company” — will be headed up by Arthur D. Levinson, chairman and former CEO of Genentech and the chairman of Apple. Calico’s unveiling was coordinated with a Time magazine cover story on the project, appropriately titled “Google vs. Death.”

“It’s worth pointing out that there is no other company in Silicon Valley that could plausibly make such an announcement,” wrote Harry McCracken and Lev Grossman. “Smaller outfits don’t have the money; larger ones don’t have the bones. Apple may have set the standard for surprise unveilings but, excepting a major new product every few years, these mostly qualify as short-term.”

“Last week Apple announced a gold iPhone; what did you do this week, Google? Oh, we founded a company that might one day defeat death itself,” they wrote.

What the company will actually do is unclear, however, and not even Time could tease out the details. Google is good at analyzing and working with large data sets, the writers noted, and the company might research new technologies.

Or it might not.

Regardless, the problems Calico seeks to solve are ones that affect us all, Page said in an statement about the new company.

“Illness and aging affect all our families. With some longer term, moonshot thinking around healthcare and biotechnology, I believe we can improve millions of lives.”

And if Calico can do that, everyone benefits — whether or not they own an iPhone.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2013/09/18/googles-next-big-challenge-death/?intcmp=features#ixzz2fVU3j8Me

How ‘smart teeth’ could detect health habits

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Artificial teeth that detect when people chew, drink, speak and cough could help people track exactly how much they eat, along with other aspects of their health, researchers say.

In a study, the scientists used dental cement to glue sensors onto the teeth of eight volunteers. The devices were accelerometers that recognized movement in all three dimensions, and were coated with dental resin to keep them safe from saliva. Thin wires connected to the sensors helped collect their data.

The researchers had the volunteers chew gum, drink a bottle of water, cough or read a section of an article. The participants spent about 40 seconds on each activity.

“Our mouth is an opening into our health our drinking and eating behaviors shed light on our diet,” said researcher Hao-hua Chu, a computer scientist at National Taiwan University in Taipei. “How frequently we cough also tells us about our health, and how frequently we talk is related to social activity that can be related to health.” [10 Technologies That Will Transform Your Life]

Each of these activities moves teeth in a unique way. When it came to recognizing what a study participant was doing based solely on data from the devices, the system researchers developed was up to 93.8 percent accurate. [Video of the smart tooth]


Chu said his 11-year-old daughter helped inspire him to invent these “smart teeth.”

“Unfortunately, she has to go to dentist a lot,” he said. “That got me to thinking is there a way to integrate digital technology into artificial teeth?”

The scientists also took removable artificial teeth and embedded accelerometers in them. Future prototypes will include small Bluetooth radios capable of wirelessly transmitting sensor data to nearby mobile devices for analysis.

“Your future dentist can offer two options for artificial teeth the first one is a traditional artificial tooth, and the second option is a smart tooth that you can use to record your activity,” Chu said. “We might also be able to put in a small energy harvester to provide enough power to run the device for a day at least, instead of taking the tooth out and recharging it.”

Additional sensors added to smart teeth could help detect even more detailed information; for instance, what people are eating, Chu added.

Chu with Polly Huang, and their colleagues Cheng-Yuan Li, Yen-Chang Chen and Wei-Ju Chen presented their work Sept. 11 at the International Symposium on Wearable Computers in Switzerland.

Copyright 2013 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/09/18/how-smart-teeth-could-detect-health-habits/?intcmp=features#ixzz2fVRDaT3m

How biofeedback can train your brain to think smarter, faster, better

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You exercise your body in the pursuit of optimal function, but what about your brain? Those looking to get an edge in—and out—of the gym are flexing their minds with neurofeedback. We’re not talking Sudoku puzzles here (though they have their benefits), but neurofeedback—the process of hooking up to an electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to “train” your brain.

Related: Foods That Make You Look Younger

What It Is
Sure, it sounds a bit sci-fi, but it may dial down your stress level and help you tap into your potential.

“Neurofeedback [also commonly called biofeedback] is somewhat like putting the brain on an elliptical machine or a stair stepper in order to exercise certain regulatory functions. For example, the brain can get stuck in an anxious state and neurofeedback training enables it to shift into a calmer state for optimal function. Essentially, you’re aiding the brain’s ability to self-regulate,” neurofeedback specialist Evelyn Shapero, of the Brainfitness Centre in Los Angeles, said.

Related: 5 Anti-Aging Tips Everyone Should Follow

The practice has been proven effective for treating serious conditions including depression, PTSD, and ADHD, but in today’s tech-driven world many are now seeking it out to alleviate stress.

“If a patient has unreasonable fatigue and insomnia, or unexplained weight gain, I test the adrenals to see if there’s a disharmonic pattern to their cortisol production,” said Dr. Eva Cwynar, a Beverly Hills endocrinologist, assistant professor of clinical medicine at UCLA, and author of “The Fatigue Solution.” “If stress hormones like cortisol are too high or low at the wrong times of the day, or too high throughout the day, it can eventually cause the adrenals to say, ‘I quit.’ Once that happens, the only thing I’ve found to help get the body back in balance is neurofeedback.”

How It Works
Even though that balance is achieved gradually, rather than as a quick fix, most people note feeling a difference after their first session.

The process, while complex and highly individualized, basically works like this: Non-invasive electrodes are attached to the surface of the scalp to measure brain waves and provide feedback as a specialized software program (often a video game) helps guide the brain into a more desired state through subtle and unconscious corrections until the brain ultimately learns to perform at its best—naturally.

Think of it like a high-tech fitness coach, guiding you through exercises and correcting your form until, eventually, you no longer need any assistance.

Related: The Virility Diet – What to Eat for Better Sex

Try it, however, and you may find it hard to give up. Because neurofeedback enhances the function of both the brain and the central nervous system, it can help you tap into that elusive state of flow, one in which mind and body are seamlessly in sync (without any conscious effort), making it a natural for the sports arena where athletes must perform like finely-tuned machines. Olympic athletes have used it as a training tool and tennis great Novak Djokovic, known for his open-minded approach to diet, health, and training, utilizes it to monitor his stress levels.

Related: 5 Reasons to Skip Breakfast

“If the adrenals aren’t functioning well, your neurotransmitters can be affected and the imbalance can extrapolate to every other hormone in the body, influencing testosterone, thyroid, insulin levels, and more,” Cwynar said. “By recreating balance in the body, neurofeedback helps everything run more smoothly, which is why it helps athletes, too. Your metabolism, your ATP, your mitochondria, everything just functions better.”

Learn more or find an EEG clinician near you.

About the author: Q by Equinox is the daily blog of the luxury fitness brand. Check back here weekly for new posts that tap into Q’s stable of world-class trainers and experts to keep up with all things health and well-being.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/09/19/how-biofeedback-can-train-your-brain-to-think-smarter-faster-better/?intcmp=obnetwork#ixzz2fVR4989b